Isoflavone-Rich Soy Protein Isolate Suppresses Androgen Receptor Expression without Altering Estrogen Receptor-b Expression or Serum Hormonal Profiles in Men at High Risk of Prostate Cancer.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of soy protein isolate consumption on circulating hormone profiles and hormone receptor expression patterns in men at high risk for developing advanced prostate cancer. Fifty-eight men were randomly assigned to consume 1 of 3 protein isolates containing 40 g/d protein: 1) soy protein isolate (SPI1) (107 mg/d isoflavones); 2) alcohol-washed soy protein isolate (SPI2) (,6 mg/d isoflavones); or 3) milk protein isolate (0 mg/d isoflavones). For 6 mo, the men consumed the protein isolates in divided doses twice daily as a partial meal replacement.
Serum samples collected at 0, 3, and 6 mo were analyzed for circulating estradiol, estrone, sex hormone-binding globulin, androstenedione, androstanediol glucuronide, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, and free testosterone concentrations by RIA. Prostate biopsy samples obtained pre- and postintervention were analyzed for androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor-b expression by immunohistochemistry. At 6 mo, consumption of SPI1 significantly suppressed AR expression but did not alter estrogen receptor-b expression or circulating hormones.
Consumption of SPI2 significantly increased estradiol and androstenedione concentrations, and tended to suppress AR expression (P ¼ 0.09). Although the effects of SPI2 consumption on estradiol and androstenedione are difficult to interpret and the clinical relevance is uncertain, these data show that AR expression in the prostate is suppressed by soy protein isolate consumption, which may be beneficial in preventing prostate cancer.
Jill M. Hamilton-Reeves,4 Salome A. Rebello,4 William Thomas,5 Joel W. Slaton,6,7 and Mindy S. Kurzer4*
4Department of Food Science and Nutrition; 5Division of Biostatistics in the School of Public Health; and 6Department of Urologic
Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 and 7Department of Urology, Veterans Administration Medical Center,
Minneapolis, MN 55417